Checking the time is firmly established in our behavior. Whether checking your watch, reading a clock on the wall, or looking at the time on your computer or phone, you’ve likely checked the time within the last few minutes. It’s habitual. However, during recovery from stroke or brain injury, you may need to relearn how to tell time.
“Read a clock ” and “Do clock math” are extremely functional and important skills. They help us to be oriented to the time of day when to wake up or go to bed, when to follow our routine, what commitments we have that day, and how much time these commitments will take.
For many, clock skills are taken for granted; however, challenges with clock reading and time-based math affects individuals across their lifespan. For example, one study found that children who have mathematical difficulties also demonstrate increased challenges in clock reading (Burney et al, 2011). Additionally, other studies found that clock reading and everyday numerical skills are affected in individuals with dementia (Schmidtke & Olbrich, 2007; Martini et al, 2003).
Difficulties reading clocks and time calculations can also occur as a result of a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other neurological disorders. It can be affected by different types of impairments including visual processing, spatial neglect, cognitive, and/or language processing.
Clock tasks are among the functional activities for adults in speech therapy and occupational therapy because it uses an everyday activity to target a variety of goals. In terms of cognition, It targets cognitive processes including attention, memory, visuospatial skills, mathematical functions, reasoning, and executive functioning.
While clock tasks are often thought to be more of a cognitive speech therapy activity for adults, language processes also play a role. Numerical representations are mapped to meanings stored in your brain. Based on the configuration on the clock, your brain must convert this to a word in your head and then map this word to a meaning in your brain. These tasks are also functional for adults with aphasia.
Your client is presented with an analog clock and three multiple-choice questions. Your client must accurately read the clock and match to its corresponding written time.
How is Read a clock Leveled?
There are 2 levels, with the multiple-choice distractors becoming increasingly more similar as level difficulty increases.
How is Read a clock Scored?
Scoring is binary (response is either correct or incorrect). The client has the opportunity to review the response before moving on to the next item. Overall score is based on the % correct items given.
Your client is presented with an analog clock and three multiple-choice questions. Your client must accurately read the clock, and perform a mathematical calculation to determine how much time has elapsed.
How is Do clock math Leveled?
There are 3 levels:
How is Do clock math Scored?
Scoring is binary (response is either correct or incorrect). The client has the opportunity to review the response before moving on to the next item. The overall score is based on the % correct items given.
How can Read a clock and Do clock math be used in therapy? These tasks are extremely functional therapy activities for adults and children because it targets activities of daily living and a variety of skill areas.
Examples of how clock tasks can be used in therapy sessions: